19. SUSTAINABLE MARITIME INDUSTRY 19.4 Protection of soil Soil contamination may be a result of a sudden accident or latent damage caused by leaks from underground structures or tanks. To protect the soil, chemicals and oils must be stored in special containers or tanks in protective basins, away from busy traffic routes. Even a small amount of harmful substances spilled into the soil, depending on their properties, may cause damage to several cubic meters of ground. Investigations and decontamination of soil are very expensive. 19.5 Water protection The most visible impact on water in the shipbuilding industry is pollution of coastal areas and sea caused by overfilled waste containers and is a result of various harmful substance spills from ships, through soil or sewage systems. It is absolutely forbidden to throw or spill waste and chemicals into the sea. Costs of pollution or investigations and management of dredging contaminated sediments are considerable. 19.6 Environmental noise Often the impact of environmental noise is noticed by the residents of surrounding areas more easily and clearly. Environmental noise differs from normal background noise. Sound quality can vary greatly depending on activities, for example, the noise from the shipyard is usually strong, impulse, narrow-band. 94 Noise abatement measures include installation of mufflers, noise insulation on machines and equipment, creating buffer zones and replacement of noise source. Noise-generating activities can be replaced by alternative solutions, e.g. purchasing quieter equipment or choosing different production process. The authorities set limits for noise from industry prescribing permissible noise / sound levels for day time and night time. 19. 7 Air emissions Different stages of surface treatment and internal traffic generate significant amounts of air emissions. Steel surface pre-treatment process and shot-blasting create dust and particle pollution. Use of solvent-based paints creates emissions called VOC. Levels of VOC emissions are monitored with periodic calculations and measurements in accordance with permissible conditions. VOC emissions - are volatile organic compounds that adversely affect human health and the environment. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause respiratory tract irritation, some are potentially carcinogenic. VOC vapours contribute to ground-level ozone formation.
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